Latin@s of African descent in Mexico, Central and South America, the Caribbean, and the United States.
Alternating between different languages (e.g. Spanish, English, Garifuna) or dialects (e.g. African-American Vernacular English, Spanglish) and in conversation depending upon social setting.
The customary beliefs, social forms, practices, and traditions of a social group (i.e. racial, ethnic, nationality).
An affiliation and/or identification with a large group of people defined by national (i.e. Irish, Italian), tribal, religious (e.g. Jewish), linguistic, and cultural origin or background.
A socially mediated and constructed role, expression, or identity related but not limited to biological sex. Gender expression ranges from the masculine to the feminine, including male, female, cis-male, cis-female, and trans. Gender roles are both defined by individuals and imposed upon individuals by others, and conventional gender roles are often mediated by societal norms and are shaped by those in power.
From the Latin name for the Iberian peninsula (“Hispania”), literally meaning of or related to Spain.
Identifying with multiple cultures, ethnicities, racial categories, and nationalities (e.g. bi-cultural, tri-cultural). AfroLatin@s might identify with a “triple consciousness” based on their blackness, their Latinidad, and their national identity.
A person who is from or whose cultural origins are in countries associated with Spanish and Portuguese colonialism. “Latin@” tends to connote Spanish-language speakers but can also include Portuguese- (Brazilian) and Kreyòl- (Haitian) speakers, as well as English speakers.
Citizenship in a nation-state. For indigenous/native people, belonging to a particular ethnic group (e.g. Cherokee).
A socially-constructed (non-biological/non-scientific) classification of a group of human beings often based on a common ancestry, geographic location or origin, phenotype (i.e. skin color), and presumed behavioral traits. Racial identities in a society are often aligned with the group’s access to social, political, and economic power.
Prejudice and discrimination based on the belief that a person’s race determines physical, behavioral, psychological, and intellectual traits and capacities that, in turn, justifies the superiority of one race over another. Racism occurs interpersonally and is also reinforced systemically, where laws, business practices, and the interests of those in positions of power maintain unequal access to education, public services, social and economic mobility, and other resources along racial lines.
Identifying with a nation from outside its political borders. “Transnationalism” acknowledges the interconnectivity between people across nation-state boundaries.